-8 ft wood plank


-stack of four rectangular blocks

-underwater/ dryland camera

- ImageJ



What Mr. Harlan needs to take to Pali:

-Wood plank


1. Velcro object 1 to the wood plank at the one foot mark.

2. Attach the underwater/dryland camera to the end of the wood plank with velcro.

3. Have one member of the group take the photos while the other two members hold the plank still.

4. Repeat these steps to make two trials for each object for the one foot length on land and underwater.

5. Repeat previous steps for two, four and six feet away from the camera.

6. After you take the photos, open ImageJ on the computer.

7. Open the picture to be measured in ImageJ (File>Open).

8. Measure a side of the each object by millimeters.

9. Set the scale of the picture by drawing a line from the side you measured along the each object and and click on Analyze>Set Scale and fill in the following:

-Known distance: (However long the side of the blocks was in millimeters)

-Unit Length: mm

10. Set box Global and click OK.

11. Draw a line from the bottom left corner to the bottom right corner (to ensure accuracy, zoom in).

12. Once the line is drawn, click Analyze>Measure, the length in mm will appear in the last column of the Results box.

13. Repeat this for each trial and each length away from the camera.

14. Calculate the difference by dividing the average of the on land length/width/area by the underwater length/width/area and set it as a proportion equal to x/100 and solve for x.

15. The variable x will give you the difference.

16. Compare the different percentages for the two objects.

Conclusion: The underwater objects increased by about 25% in length and width, and about 40% in area.


Our project is based on magnification underwater compared to on land. Scientists say that objects seem 25% larger and 33% closer underwater. Refraction is when light rays are bent as they pass through one density to the other. In diving, this happens between the diver's mask and the water which affects the direction of the light to bend in a different way and makes objects in the water seem closer and larger.

This topic on magnification underwater has been tested and experimented by many other DEEP students. There have also been many errors made on this DEEP project which we can use to improve them in our project. To improve our project, we will use a digital camera rather than a disposable, avoid using pictures of blue objects to measure, and take close up pictures of the objects.

Using a digital camera will result in clearer images that will allow us to measure the pictures more precisely.

Since this project will take place under a more blue environment, we will try to avoid taking photos of blue objects so they can be seen better in our photos.

In our project, since we will need to take measurements as exact as possible, we will need to take our photos closer up in the water to avoid blurriness in the photo from the water. This is how we will improve our project from the past water magnification DEEP projects.

The objects we will be using are rectangular objects that we will attach to the frame with velcro. We will attach the digital underwater camera to one end of the platform and mark where we will place our objects. We will not only be testing the magnification from one length away from the camera but be testing it from different lengths away. We will test it from one foot, two feet, four feet, and six feet away from the camera. Next, we will use ImageJ to measure the photos, then use a calculator to calculate the percent increase in millimeters with the height, length and area of the image of the object. Our results will be a table that will have columns for different lengths away from the camera and the height, length and area in millimeters.

These are our final results that show the percent increases between the on-land and underwater objects.

These tables represent the photo measurements, length,

width, and area, and overall measurements average of

object #1 on-land and underwater.

These tables represent the photo measurements, length,

width, and area, and overall measurements average of

object #2 on-land and underwater.