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There are three types of buoyancy, the first is negative buoyancy which is when any object sinks under water, the next is positive buoyancy and that is when an object floats on the surface, and the last type is neutral buoyancy which is when you just stay in the middle of the water not going up or down.
The whole point of gaining neutral buoyancy is so that you can stay at a certain depth for an unlimited amount of time. The way you get this type of buoyancy is by using two objects. The first object is a weight belt which holds about five weights and goes around your waist. Then there is a jacket, called a BC, which holds air in it to enlarge a persons volume. If too much air is put into the BC there is a button to deflate it.
Gaining neutral buoyancy is very difficult and may take many years to master. Finding perfect buoyancy is not just about the perfect amount of weight but also about distribution. The way to tell you have good distribution of your weight is if you can hover in a horizontal position without your feet sinking or rising. When in the ocean, it is very difficult with positive buoyancy and it will not be the best experience. When diving with negative buoyancy you constantly have to swim toward the surface making it unable for you to see all the beautiful things around you. There are many advantages to gaining neutral buoyancy when diving, for example, you will save more air, you will be able to move faster with less effort, and best of all you, will not feel as much fatigue after the dive.